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Best Non Smart Phone Sprint

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Organic Light Emitting Diodes-Smart Elements For Displays

 

 

 

Organic light emitting diode-Smart element for display.

 

An organic light emitting diode (OLED), is a light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes, where at least one of the electrodes is transparent.

OLED can be used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as Cell Phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination, and large-area light-emitting elements. OLEDs emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs .

 

OLED displays have certain advantages over liquid crystal displays (LCDs). OLED displays do not require a backlight to function. Thus, they can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than LCD panels. OLED displays achieve higher contrast ratios than either LCD screens using cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) or the more recently developed LED .

OLED Components:An OLED is a device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material; in the latter design, the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. In this article, we’ll be focusing on the two-layer design.

 

An OLED consists of the following parts:

1.Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) – The substrate supports the OLED.

 2.Anode (transparent) – The anode removes electrons (adds electron “holes”) when a current flows through the device.

3.Organic layers – These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.

4.Conducting layer – This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport “holes” from the     anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline.

5.cathode: The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer

 

 

 

 

OLED is com posed of an emissive layer, a conductive layer, a substrate, and both anode and cathode terminals. The layers are made of organic molecules that conduct electricity. The layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, so OLEDs are considered organic semiconductors.

OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).

Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiencyand conductive properties,  the layers are  chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.

.

 

 

Schematic of a 2-layer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+)

 

Operation ofOLEDs:

OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs, through a process called electrophosphorescence.

The process is as follows: 1. the voltage is applied across the OLED.

2.An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons).

The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules.

       The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules.

3.At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layer , Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. Hence this layer is called emissive.

 

        4.When this happens, the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light . The OLED emits    

           Light.

        5.The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer.

             Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays.

         6.when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode then holes               move tothe anode and electrons to the cathode, so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine.In this case OLED  is not functions as light emitter. 

 

 

7.The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current, the brighter the light

8.Anode material in OLED must have high work function where cathode material must have low workfunction.so generally Indium tin oxide is used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer

 

Types of OLEDs:

There are several types of OLEDs & each type has different uses.

 

1.Passive-matrix OLED

2.Active-matrix OLED

3.Transparent OLED

4.Top-emitting OLED

5.Foldable OLED

6.White OLED

Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED)
PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. Again, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current.

 

PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than other types of OLED, mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2- to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently.

AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode, but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image.

 

AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large displays. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards

Transparent OLED
Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate, cathode and anode) and, when turned off, are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate. When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions. A transparent OLED display can be either active- or passive-matrix. This technology can be used for heads-up displays.TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight.This technology can be used in Head-up displays, smart windows or augmented reality applications

 

Top-emitting OLED
Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. They are best suited to active-matrix design. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards.

 

Foldable OLED
Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics. Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage, a major cause for return or repair. Potentially, foldable OLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create “smart” clothing, such as outdoor survival clothing with an integrated computer chip, cell phone, GPS receiver and OLED display sewn into it.

White OLED
White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter, more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets, they can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting.

In the next section, we’ll discuss the pros and cons of OLED technology and how it compares to regular LED and LCD technology.

Stacked OLED

Stacked OLED (SOLED) uses a pixel architecture that stacks the red, green, and blue subpixels on top of one another instead of next to one another, leading to substantial increase in gamut and color depth, and greatly reducing pixel gap. Currently, other display technologies have the RGB (and RGBW) pixels mapped next to each other decreasing potential resolution.

Inverted OLED

In contrast to a conventional OLED, in which the anode is placed on the substrate, an Inverted OLED (IOLED) uses a bottom cathode that can be connected to the drain end of an n-channel TFT especially for the low cost amorphous silicon TFT backplane useful in the manufacturing of AMOLED displays.[44]

Advantages OLED

OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:

      1.The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD.

2.Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter, the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid.

3.OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs.

4.OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.

5.Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED, the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be multi-layered.

6.LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and glass absorbs some light. OLEDs do not require glass.

7.OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs .since  OLEDs generate light themselves

8. As OLEDs do not require backlighting, they consume much less power than LCDs .This is especially important for battery-operated devices such as cell phones.

9.OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics, they can be made into large, thin sheets.

10.OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much wider viewing range.

Disadvantages OLED
OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but it also has some problems:

1.Lifetime – While red and green OLED films have longer lifetimes (46,000 to 230,000 hours), blue organics currently have much shorter lifetimes (up to around 14,000 hours.

Manufacturing – Manufacturing processes are expensive right now.

2.Water – Water can easily damage OLEDs.

Color balance issues

The OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors, blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light. This differential color output change will change the color balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. This can be partially avoided by adjusting colour balance but this may require advanced control circuits and interaction with the user, which is unacceptable for some users.

Other companies

The Optimus Maximus keyboard developed by the Art. Lebedev Studio and released early 2008 uses 113 48×48-pixel OLEDs (10.1×10.1 mm) for its keys.

OLEDs can be used in High-Resolution Holography (Volumetric display). Professor Orbit showed on May 12, 2007, EXPO Lisbon the potential application of these materials to reproduce three-dimensional video.[citation needed]

OLEDs could also be used as solid-state light sources. OLED efficiency and lifetime already exceed those of incandescent light bulbs, and OLEDs are investigated worldwide as a source of general illumination; an example is the EU OLLA project.[75]

On March 11, 2008 GE Global Research demonstrated the first successful roll-to-roll manufactured OLED, marking a major milestone towards cost effective production of commercial OLED technology. The four year, $13 million research project was carried out by GE Global Research, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.[76][77]

Chi Mei Corporation of Taiwan, demonstrated a 25″ Low-Temperature Polycrystalline silicon Active Matrix OLED at the Society of Information Displays (SID) conference in Los Angeles, CA, USA on May 20–22, 2008.

On June 5, 2009 DuPont demonstrated a new material that can be printed, so called solution deposition. The breakthrough is the ability to produce economically scalable and durable OLED displays at the 2009 International Symposium, May 31-June 5, 2009, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

The use of OLEDs is also being investigated for the treatment of cancer by photodynamic therapy.[78]

On 30 Aug 2009, South Korea’s LG Electronics said it would launch a 15-inch television set using AM-OLED displays for sale in November.[79][80]

According to Isuppli Corp,[81] upward momentum of OLED Shipments for primary cell phone displays is their expectation in coming years. They claimed that global shipments of OLED main cell phone displays would rise to 178 million units in 2015, up from 22.2 million in 2009. In other words, the shipments will rise eightfold by 2015. Therefore, it’s evident that the manufacture of OLED display and OLED equipment by Samsung, DuPont, Anwell, Chi Mei Corporation, etc has expanded dramatically in recent years.

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  79. ^ “LG Elec to unveil 15-inch OLED TV for sale in Nov”. Reuters.com retrieved on Aug 29, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSSEO33673720090830. 
  80. ^ “LG 15寸纤薄OLED电视官方图赏”. OLEDW.com retrieved on Aug 30, 2009. http://www.oledw.com/news/200908/1621/. 
  81. ^ “OLED Shipments for Primary Cell-Phone Displays to Rise Eightfold by 2015”. Isuppli.com retrieved on 09/03/2009. http://www.isuppli.com/News/Pages/OLED-Shipments-for-Primary-Cell-PhoneDisplays-to-Rise-Two-Hundred-fold-by-2015.aspx. 
  82. ^ Electronic News, OLEDs Replacing LCDs in Mobile Phones, April 7, 2005, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  83. ^ Michael Kanellos, “Start-up creates flexible sheets of light”, CNet News.com, December 6, 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  84. ^ AP, “New machine prints sheets of light”, CNN.com, 10 October 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
  85. ^ “OQO OLED Notebook Is A Luminous Beauty | Gadget Lab | Wired.com”. Blog.wired.com. 2009-01-09. http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2009/01/oqo-oled-notebo.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  86. ^ “Philips Lumiblades”. Lumiblade.com. 2009-08-09. http://www.lumiblade.com. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  87. ^ “Sprint to sell high-end AM-OLED phones from Samsung”. Reuters retrieved on 2009-08-06. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSN0651549520090806. 
  88. ^ search patents at www.uspto.gov
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  96. ^ “Sony OLEDs”. OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/sony-oled. 
  97. ^ “Samsung SDI — The world’s largest OLED display maker”. Oled-info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/market_reports/samsung_sdi_the_worlds_largest_oled_display_maker. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  98. ^ a b c “Frost & Sullivan Recognizes Samsung SDI for Market Leadership in the OLED Display Market | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET”. Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_July_17/ai_n27929051. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  99. ^ Passive Matrix OLEDs (PMOLEDs) and AMOLEDs.

Further reading

  • P. Chamorro-Posada, J. Martín-Gil, P. Martín-Ramos, L.M. Navas-Gracia, Fundamentos de la Tecnología OLED (Fundamentals of OLED Technology). University of Valladolid, Spain (2008). ISBN 978-84-936644-0-4. Available online, with permission from the authors, at the webpage: http://www.scribd.com/doc/13325893/Fundamentos-de-la-Tecnologia-OLED
  • Shinar, Joseph (Ed.), Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey. NY: Springer-Verlag (2004). ISBN 0-387-95343-4.
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2003). ISBN 1-58883-010-1. Volume 1: Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2008). ISBN 1-58883-095-0.

RABIYA TANVEER.                                                                

LECTURER IN PHYSICS

CHAITANYA DEGREE AND P.G COLLEGE

HNK,WARANGAL,INDIA.

AFFILIATION:

1.NANO SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM,

NOIDA,UP.INDIA.

2.PHOTONICS 21,EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM. EMAIL:munaizag@gmail.com                      

 

About the Author

lecturer in physics & electronics dept. of physics & electronics, chaitanya degree & p.g college, kishan pura ,hanamkonda, warangal.A.P.

LG Rumor Review

Smart Phone Operating Systems

smart phone operating systems
smart phone operating systems
I have a smartphone of this card has MTK operating system and a 1GB TF. Is it to make a way, Java enabled?

ya just check if there has JVM supports.

Developers flock to Android 'ecosystem' The explosive growth of the mobile operating system Google's system, she has produced a demand for Android applications and to create the people.

Top 10 Smart Phone Manufacturers

top 10 Smart Phone Manufacturers

Samsung M8800 Pixon vs BlackBerry 8900 – The war of smart phones

Samsung and BlackBerry are two reputed and well established phone manufacturers of our times. Several of their handsets have been released with not much difference of period between them. Hence, comparison between their handsets was on the expected lines. Presently, the camera phone lovers are in a state of trance by the all new Samsung M8800 Pixon, whereas BlackBerry has kept up its reputation of delivering smart business phones with its BlackBerry 8900. In this analysis viz-a-viz Samsung M8800 Pixon vs BlackBerry 8900, we try to decipher these two handsets and get a better grasp as to which one comes out on top. The BlackBerry 8900 is what one would expect from the company- a sophisticated gadget equipped with excellent specifications. Like all BlackBerry gadgets, it comes with a QWERTY keyboard which is now the brands hallmark feature. It has a TFT display supporting 65K colours with a high resolution of 480 x 360 pixels. Measuring 2.4 inches, it is comfortably large and with its Trackball navigation ensures easy access to phone features. The wallpapers lets you customise the home screen to reflect your mood and preference. The gadget is mostly preferred by business users who find its elegant looks rather ‘official’ and in tune with their profile.

The gadget comes with a large memory capacity in the tune of 16GB by microSD, which ensures large data storage requirements of business users or for that matter general users is aptly taken care of. An advanced 3.15 MP camera with 2048×1536 pixels and features such as autofocus, LED flash, Geo-tagging and image stabilization ensure you never miss another moment without capturing it. Video recording is also possible at 240×180 pixels. The gadget runs upon the BlackBerry OS and has a 512 MHz processor thus resulting in an overall fast processing speed. The other contender in Samsung M8800 Pixon vs BlackBerry 8900 goes a step ahead in terms of its specifications and features. This could be the dream gadget for any user, be those fond of camera phones, music players or overall complete gadgets. It comes with a amazing 8.0 MP camera as its main feature along with a host of features. This includes autofocus, LED flash, Geo-tagging, face, smile and blink detection, image stabilization and wide dynamic range. Video recording can be performed efficiently whereas a secondary VGA camera allows video calling. A 3G handset, it enables optimum connectivity via its triband features.

It comes with a class 10 of GPRS and EDGE along with HSDPA, 7.2 Mbps. With support for WAP and XHTML browsers, accessing the world wide web, staying up to date with the latest information or visiting social networking sites is possible by just a press of a button. The gadget comes with 200 MB of internal memory which is further expandable upto 16GB with microSD. This coupled with the fact that it comes with Document viewer (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF) makes it an ideal choice for business users as well. The Samsung M8800 Pixon scores in terms of musical capabilities over the BlackBerry 8900. it comes with Stereo FM radio with RDS in addition to media player supporting all major sound formats. Its SRS (Surround Sound System) Virtual 5.1 channel lets you enjoy some high quality music. In conclusion, it would be safe to say that both handsets are quite capable in their own right. Choose amongst any of these two assured of having a satisfying experience.

About the Author

I am David Boon an Online Marketing Analyst. I am working on Mobile phone industry in UK now.
Read More Samsung M8800 Pixon and BlackBerry 8900

Samsung phones store Mobile Phone Deals – Smart Phones Tagge

Cell Phone Case Removal

cell phone case removal
how do you get stores to send you free stuff to “Test”?

i was reading reviews on certain products, and the reviews were of various things, such as Cell Phones, personal laser hair removal devices, and some other new products, and i also saw some youtube videos where people review stuff, but in the case of a few things, like the laser hair remover, the lady got to keep it, but she didnt work for any type of special company, how do you go about having a company send you free stuff to try out?, or am i not understanding how that works?

no but you an get free samples.
If you want a free sample site without those stupid offers or surveys I would check out http://www.sampleaday.com . They feature a new free sample every day without those stupid surveys or “offers” that make the “free sample” not really free. What I also like about them is that they have a mailing list so that you can get the free samples sent to your inbox… its pretty sweet.

Cell Phone case removal

Cell Phone Cases Western

Cell Phone Cases western
cell phone cases western

In-vehicle Cell Phone Use – Assessment of accident risk

Mobile phone use in motor vehicles has increased at a remarkable rate over the past 15 years. However, it is undeniable that the use of a mobile phone while driving can affect the performance of my driver, as it relates to the safe operation of a vehicle. There are a number of Things to be examined in deciding whether the trade-off in convenience is worth the potential risks associated with the distraction created by a mobile phone associated. Given the fact that the individual driver (and / or entrepreneurs) ultimately pays for the resulting consequences associated with a car or truck accident (financial, emotional and physical ) Lose, it is advisable to try, relevant and reliable information in a decision. In this regard the source as well as the possible motivation behind the information provider.

Source: U.S. Legislation

In the U.S. there is currently no federal laws prohibiting driving while using a cell phone. In a serious attempt to provide a solution to find, in some states (New Jersey, New York, the District of Columbia, Connecticut and pending California) have laws barring hand-held cell phone use while the ride pass. Typical fines range from $ 50 to $ 100 for drivers caught with a hand tool. During this legislature to the public welfare at heart by levying fines, not all entities weighing in on this subject probably have the same incentive.

Source: Vendor Research

As the result of an independent study (on its website a press release found), Plantronics, a manufacturer of headsets that "71% the driver steer better when a headset with a mobile phone. "They point out that the study to discover if a person uses a mobile phone has been improved To drive if he or she uses a headset. Stephen Wilcox, Ph.D., Principal of Design Science (independent research firm) says: "Driving with both hands on the wheel is to use the safest option for motorists using mobile phones, and headsets are tools to allow this improvement. "Considering the source, This statement is characteristic of the scientific research? Is it objective and free of marketing bias? Could it confuse individuals to think that Cell Phones are safe, As long as your hands free? In addition, see the end of the press release, is a commentary by a senior director of product marketing. Beth Johnson says: "It is important that in mind that our study is not intended to be the question of whether it is safe on a cell phone conversation while driving address, but what kind of technology for the drivers the safest is to use when talking on their phones. "In addition to express their intention is to educate" drivers on options for Using mobile phones comfortably and responsibly while driving. "Since the objective of safety education is to complete this research responsibly consider it a relevant and reliable source?

Certainly, when you go to your own assessment of the idea of liberation until both hands to the steering wheel control is a logical consideration. If a driver focuses exclusively on driving the vehicle, then two hands on the wheel is better than one. Unfortunately, this seemingly sensible approach can lead to a false sense of security of the driver (may lead increasing accident risk) As mentioned in various reports (http://www.vcu.edu/cppweb/tstc/reports/reports.html) by the Crash Investigation Team at Virginia Commonwealth University Center for Public Safety. Their findings showed that the cognitive resources must lead to a phone call are equivalent to those required to drive to. This is an important concern in view of VCU history of road safety research, as well as other studies conclude this behavior (Carried out on a phone while driving), reduces both driver reaction time and driver attention, particularly as they relate to the brakes.

Unlike a computer, have the people a limited capacity to simultaneously process information. If the software seems to slow down your computer, you could consider more Memory or processor speed to compensate for the delays as a result of an overload in computing capacity. We as humans have a similar restriction, when it comes to processing too much information coming, but unlike computers, our resources are somewhat fixed. Given the inherent delays in our own thinking reaction time when confronted with an increased workload, it is virtually certain, or a cell phone to keep talking while driving a motor vehicle?

Source: Government Transportation Safety Research

The U.S. government employs many of the top transportation safety experts and funds a large part of the world's accident prevention Research. Given the effects traffic accidents and congestion have on U.S. productivity, accident reduction is a top priority. Considering that distracted driving received at least 6.4 percent of deaths in 2004 to crash (U.S. Department of Transportation), many researchers are looking closely at the distinction distraction of mobile phone use caused in vehicles. In addition to the many potential distractions in a car phones are considered equally or more dangerous than the other known distractions such as eating, Reading a map or care while operating a motor vehicle. In view of the research for and by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (www.nhtsa.gov) we should at least be considered for its policy on mobile phone use while driving, which says, "The main responsibility of the driver, a motor vehicle safely . Operate The task of driving requires full attention and concentration. Mobile phone use can distract drivers from this task, risking harm to themselves and others. Therefore, the safest approach of using a cellular phone is to refrain while driving. "

Source: Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA)

According to the CTIA, there are currently more than 218 million mobile phone users subscribed to the August 2006 (compared to around 4.3 million in 1990). Based at the extraordinary growth of the mobile industry and the CTIA advisory role, it can be useful to reflect on their views on this subject. Here you should think of to find a document on the CTIA Web site entitled "SafeDrivingTalkingPoints2" (Created June 6, 2006), which says, "But for some reason, legislative Efforts to prevent driver distractions have been narrowly focused on the use of mobile phones. According to government statistics and respected research studies, this Approach also off point. "Remember that there are more than 220 million vehicles on the road and a similar number of mobile subscribers. Based on the customer could possibly spend much time with their cell phones in vehicles, we would hope to see the CTIA an objective source. Given the magnitude of the Revenue at stake, is a greater degree of control in order here? Would the CTIA another position if they were likely to hold, in part, for Diverted traffic accidents?

Source: Leading Universities & Independent Researchers

While there are a number of valuable studies on this Topic are the following extensive research by highly accredited organizations are provided:

1) Virginia Tech Transportation Institute researchers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA tracked) 100 cars and their drivers for one year, they discovered that talking on cell phones causing crashes more near-crashes and other incidents than other distractions (100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, April 2006).

2) Researchers at the University of Utah found that motorists on the blood-alcohol threshold of being legally drunk in a position to better drive than were sober cell phone using drivers. A key researcher and author in this Field, psychology professor David Strayer notes, "As you bring yourself and other people in danger if you drive drunk, you put yourself and others in danger if you a cell phone and drive are used. The level of impairment is very similar. "Remember also, they found the driver to more accident-prone and slower To react when talking on cell phones. It did not matter if it was hands-free either because of "inattention blindness", a syndrome that a driver less able to process visual information can be.

3) The George Institute for International Health (University of Sydney, Australia), Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (Arlington, Virginia) and Injury Research Centre, University of Western Australia (Crawley Australia) jointly presented research on "The Role of mobile phones in car accidents resulting in hospital visits: a case-crossover study. The research consisted of 456 drivers aged 17 years who owned or used Mobile phones and was involved in traffic accidents in a hospital required attendance between April 2002 and July 2004. They concluded that a driver who a mobile phone (Used for up to 10 minutes before a crash) has a four times greater likelihood of causing crashes and an increased likelihood of a crash and injuries. With a hands-free is no safer.

Eliminate the risk and keep the benefits

If you are the head of a household, a guardian or the parent who contributes to enable a less experienced driver, your decision in any vehicle mobile phone use a big emotional and financial risk. If You fleet managers or individuals that you are dealing with work-related conversations during the trip, was the risk of liability for distracted accidents on you fall. Strongly consider the legal consequences for negligent operation of an employee-owned company-provided vehicle or before the threat of a serious cognitive distraction as a cell phone set to ignore.

Obviously there are no easy or certain solutions without sacrifice of convenience. Remember that the benefits of having a cell phone (emergency use and times when you are not operating a vehicle) is not lost just because it keeps shutting off while driving. If She has set out the facts on relevant and reliable sources, it really is not about a trade off, having to avoid all but a chance that an accident or perhaps a fatality. In the meantime, loved, until proven otherwise, they do not think instigating a life saving strategy now for the safe use of mobile phones – Limit use to, ones and colleagues (personal and business) only when the vehicle is in park!

About the Author

Gary S. Rothstein is the President of Mobile Awareness (http://www.mobileawareness.com), a company which designs vehicle safety products. He has 25 years experience in the design of high technology electronics & can be reached at: Mobile Awareness, 34305 Solon Road, Solon, Ohio 44139, 866-653-5036, gsr@MobileAwareness.com Copyright© September 2006

Young & reckless in web world a girl studying in class 9 is too afraid to step out of her house. The reason? Lewd text messages landed on her cell phone from a guy in Delhi who they thought was their friend.

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