Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 166

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 166

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 203

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 203

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 231

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 231

Posts Tagged ‘voip’

Smart Phone Companies

smart phone companies
A question for those of you familiar with cell phone companies. . .?

I bought a phone from a few months online, without a contract because I wanted to avoid paying $ 30.00 extra per month for a data plan. If my cell phone downloads of data, a 3G icon appears in the top toolbar, and it seems tiny bits of information often download anything. I suspect that it was because of this that I went through the last months bill of $ 20.00. There is not much, but I do not have enough money for additional expenses every month so my question is … Can I make T-Mobile (my cell phone provider) and somehow, that they information to block my mobile phone to download and how they would go about it? My cell phone is the Motorola Cliq XT. I like it but if it blocks download of data is not possible I might have to sell it.

Well, I can tell you some solutions, but I really have to ask something. Why would you spend the money, you have to buy at full price, no less, a data-enabled phone without adding the data service as an option? The whole point of smartphones (including the Android phones as the Cliq) is that data services that it offers the social networking, data applications and location use this phone can have. I do not expect an answer, but Silly it seems to me. Android phones I have owned two, and maybe my economic situation is different, but without data, Nexus One would my calls are a very expensive phone brick making. Just sayin '. OK You will have data as incorporated features of the phone with GPS and cell sites is Enquiry in the background. If you ever had a "social" applications used on the phone, and you have not set correctly, these applications, the data to draw. Even if you have no data service. These settings are based on my Nexus One, so that performance can vary. Since most Android phones have similar setups, you should be able to see them all. They will phone you use the settings for the tool (opens Usually pressing the Menu button or icon settings). First, go to Settings -> Wireless and network settings -> Mobile Networks Clear the check box "Data Enabled". Also, make sure that the "data roaming" box is unset (it is normally enabled by default). In Settings -> Location and Safety Clear the check box "Use Wireless Networks" and "Use GPS satellite" boxes. The searches will stop the phone from Location data to be done. In Settings -> Accounts and Sync Disable "Background Data" and "Auto Sync". This will prevent background synchronization apps e-mail and others. Of course you can continue to use all functions with a Wi-Fi connection, which I assume you already know. As I said, these settings can various locations on your device, but they should be somewhere in there. Hope this helps.

Book Publishing Companies with Catherine DeVyre Get Published TV Episode #050

Smart Phones Skype

smart phones skype
SKYPE for my smart phone?

I’ve been looking for a download for my smart phone (Samsung sch-I760) that lets me send ims or texts for free, since I don’t have a texting plan.

I tried Fring but it doesn’t work for some reason. Then I heard that Skype for Windows Mobile 6.1 lets you text for free? Is this true?

This is a true statement, with a little caveat….The other user must have Skype on their phone, or computer for you to be able to text for free. It does work well though, I have it on my Samsung Omnia i910 and I love it. Ive also noticed that on my phone at least I can not connect via the broadband, I have to use WiFi. You might want to check into that as well, because unless your in a hotspot, it would be pretty useless for you.

Spies, secrets and smart-phones
by P.C. | The Economist SOME sort of a deal seems to have been thrashed out over the weekend, according to reports from Saudi Arabia, under which its spooks will be able to snoop to their heart’s content on messages sent over BlackBerrys within the kingdom. All last week, as it negotiated with the Saudi, […]

Best Non Smart Phone Sprint

best non Smart Phone Sprint
best non smart phone sprint

Organic Light Emitting Diodes-Smart Elements For Displays




Organic light emitting diode-Smart element for display.


An organic light emitting diode (OLED), is a light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes, where at least one of the electrodes is transparent.

OLED can be used in television screens, computer monitors, small, portable system screens such as Cell Phones and PDAs, watches, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination, and large-area light-emitting elements. OLEDs emit less light per unit area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs .


OLED displays have certain advantages over liquid crystal displays (LCDs). OLED displays do not require a backlight to function. Thus, they can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than LCD panels. OLED displays achieve higher contrast ratios than either LCD screens using cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) or the more recently developed LED .

OLED Components:An OLED is a device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material; in the latter design, the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. In this article, we’ll be focusing on the two-layer design.


An OLED consists of the following parts:

1.Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) – The substrate supports the OLED.

 2.Anode (transparent) – The anode removes electrons (adds electron “holes”) when a current flows through the device.

3.Organic layers – These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.

4.Conducting layer – This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport “holes” from the     anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline.

5.cathode: The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer





OLED is com posed of an emissive layer, a conductive layer, a substrate, and both anode and cathode terminals. The layers are made of organic molecules that conduct electricity. The layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors, so OLEDs are considered organic semiconductors.

OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).

Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers to improve device efficiencyand conductive properties,  the layers are  chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted.




Schematic of a 2-layer OLED: 1. Cathode (−), 2. Emissive Layer, 3. Emission of radiation, 4. Conductive Layer, 5. Anode (+)


Operation ofOLEDs:

OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs, through a process called electrophosphorescence.

The process is as follows: 1. the voltage is applied across the OLED.

2.An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons).

The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules.

       The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules.

3.At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layer , Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. This happens closer to the emissive layer, because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons, accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. Hence this layer is called emissive.


        4.When this happens, the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light . The OLED emits    


        5.The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer.

             Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays.

         6.when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode then holes               move tothe anode and electrons to the cathode, so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine.In this case OLED  is not functions as light emitter. 



7.The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current, the brighter the light

8.Anode material in OLED must have high work function where cathode material must have low workfunction.so generally Indium tin oxide is used as the anode material. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer


Types of OLEDs:

There are several types of OLEDs & each type has different uses.


1.Passive-matrix OLED

2.Active-matrix OLED

3.Transparent OLED

4.Top-emitting OLED

5.Foldable OLED

6.White OLED

Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED)
PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. Again, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current.


PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than other types of OLED, mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2- to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently.

AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode, but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image.


AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large displays. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards

Transparent OLED
Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate, cathode and anode) and, when turned off, are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate. When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions. A transparent OLED display can be either active- or passive-matrix. This technology can be used for heads-up displays.TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight.This technology can be used in Head-up displays, smart windows or augmented reality applications


Top-emitting OLED
Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. They are best suited to active-matrix design. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards.


Foldable OLED
Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics. Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage, a major cause for return or repair. Potentially, foldable OLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create “smart” clothing, such as outdoor survival clothing with an integrated computer chip, cell phone, GPS receiver and OLED display sewn into it.

White OLED
White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter, more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets, they can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting.

In the next section, we’ll discuss the pros and cons of OLED technology and how it compares to regular LED and LCD technology.

Stacked OLED

Stacked OLED (SOLED) uses a pixel architecture that stacks the red, green, and blue subpixels on top of one another instead of next to one another, leading to substantial increase in gamut and color depth, and greatly reducing pixel gap. Currently, other display technologies have the RGB (and RGBW) pixels mapped next to each other decreasing potential resolution.

Inverted OLED

In contrast to a conventional OLED, in which the anode is placed on the substrate, an Inverted OLED (IOLED) uses a bottom cathode that can be connected to the drain end of an n-channel TFT especially for the low cost amorphous silicon TFT backplane useful in the manufacturing of AMOLED displays.[44]

Advantages OLED

OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:

      1.The plastic, organic layers of an OLED are thinner, lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD.

2.Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter, the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid.

3.OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs.

4.OLEDs are brighter than LEDs.

5.Because the organic layers of an OLED are much thinner than the corresponding inorganic crystal layers of an LED, the conductive and emissive layers of an OLED can be multi-layered.

6.LEDs and LCDs require glass for support, and glass absorbs some light. OLEDs do not require glass.

7.OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs .since  OLEDs generate light themselves

8. As OLEDs do not require backlighting, they consume much less power than LCDs .This is especially important for battery-operated devices such as cell phones.

9.OLEDs are easier to produce and can be made to larger sizes. Because OLEDs are essentially plastics, they can be made into large, thin sheets.

10.OLEDs have large fields of view, about 170 degrees. OLEDs produce their own light, so they have a much wider viewing range.

Disadvantages OLED
OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but it also has some problems:

1.Lifetime – While red and green OLED films have longer lifetimes (46,000 to 230,000 hours), blue organics currently have much shorter lifetimes (up to around 14,000 hours.

Manufacturing – Manufacturing processes are expensive right now.

2.Water – Water can easily damage OLEDs.

Color balance issues

The OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors, blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light. This differential color output change will change the color balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. This can be partially avoided by adjusting colour balance but this may require advanced control circuits and interaction with the user, which is unacceptable for some users.

Other companies

The Optimus Maximus keyboard developed by the Art. Lebedev Studio and released early 2008 uses 113 48×48-pixel OLEDs (10.1×10.1 mm) for its keys.

OLEDs can be used in High-Resolution Holography (Volumetric display). Professor Orbit showed on May 12, 2007, EXPO Lisbon the potential application of these materials to reproduce three-dimensional video.[citation needed]

OLEDs could also be used as solid-state light sources. OLED efficiency and lifetime already exceed those of incandescent light bulbs, and OLEDs are investigated worldwide as a source of general illumination; an example is the EU OLLA project.[75]

On March 11, 2008 GE Global Research demonstrated the first successful roll-to-roll manufactured OLED, marking a major milestone towards cost effective production of commercial OLED technology. The four year, $13 million research project was carried out by GE Global Research, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.[76][77]

Chi Mei Corporation of Taiwan, demonstrated a 25″ Low-Temperature Polycrystalline silicon Active Matrix OLED at the Society of Information Displays (SID) conference in Los Angeles, CA, USA on May 20–22, 2008.

On June 5, 2009 DuPont demonstrated a new material that can be printed, so called solution deposition. The breakthrough is the ability to produce economically scalable and durable OLED displays at the 2009 International Symposium, May 31-June 5, 2009, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, TX, USA

The use of OLEDs is also being investigated for the treatment of cancer by photodynamic therapy.[78]

On 30 Aug 2009, South Korea’s LG Electronics said it would launch a 15-inch television set using AM-OLED displays for sale in November.[79][80]

According to Isuppli Corp,[81] upward momentum of OLED Shipments for primary cell phone displays is their expectation in coming years. They claimed that global shipments of OLED main cell phone displays would rise to 178 million units in 2015, up from 22.2 million in 2009. In other words, the shipments will rise eightfold by 2015. Therefore, it’s evident that the manufacture of OLED display and OLED equipment by Samsung, DuPont, Anwell, Chi Mei Corporation, etc has expanded dramatically in recent years.


  1. ^ a b Sony XEL-1:The world’s first OLED TV, OLED-Info.com Nov.17 2008
  2. ^ A. Bernanose, M. Comte, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 64.
  3. ^ A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1953, 50, 261.
  4. ^ A. Bernanose, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 396.
  5. ^ A. Bernanose, P. Vouaux, J. Chim. Phys. 1955, 52, 509.
  6. ^ Kallmann, H.; Pope, M. (1960). “Positive Hole Injection into Organic Crystals”. The Journal of Chemical Physics 32: 300. doi:10.1063/1.1700925. 
  7. ^ Kallmann, H.; Pope, M. (1960). “Bulk Conductivity in Organic Crystals”. Nature 186: 31. doi:10.1038/186031a0. 
  8. ^ Mark, Peter; Helfrich, Wolfgang (1962). “Space-Charge-Limited Currents in Organic Crystals”. Journal of Applied Physics 33: 205. doi:10.1063/1.1728487. 
  9. ^ Pope, M.; Kallmann, H. P.; Magnante, P. (1963). “Electroluminescence in Organic Crystals”. The Journal of Chemical Physics 38: 2042. doi:10.1063/1.1733929. 
  10. ^ Sano, Mizuka; Pope, Martin; Kallmann, Hartmut (1965). “Electroluminescence and Band Gap in Anthracene”. The Journal of Chemical Physics 43: 2920. doi:10.1063/1.1697243. 
  11. ^ Helfrich, W.; Schneider, W. (1965). “Recombination Radiation in Anthracene Crystals”. Physical Review Letters 14: 229. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.14.229. 
  12. ^ Malliaras, George; Friend, Richard (2005). “An Organic Electronics Primer”. Physics Today 58: 53. doi:10.1063/1.1995748. 
  13. ^ E. Gurnee, R. Fernandez, U.S. Patent 3,172,862 virture paintball has made a board using the oled, 1965.
  14. ^ R. McNeill, R. Siudak, J. H. Wardlaw, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. I. The Chemical Structure of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1056.
  15. ^ B. A. Bolto, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. I. The Chemical Structure of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1056.
  16. ^ B. A. Bolto, R. McNeill, D. E. Weiss, Electronic Conduction in Polymers. III. Electronic Properties of Polypyrrole, Aus. J. Chem. 1963, 16, 1090.
  17. ^ McGinness, J; Corry, P; Proctor, P (1974). Amorphous Semiconductor Switching in Melanins “Amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins”. Science (New York, N.Y.) 183 (127): 853–5. PMID 4359339. http://www.drproctor.com/os/amorphous.htm Amorphous Semiconductor Switching in Melanins. 
  18. ^ Shirakawa, Hideki; Louis, Edwin J.; MacDiarmid, Alan G.; Chiang, Chwan K.; Heeger, Alan J. (1977). “Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH) x”. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications: 578. doi:10.1039/C39770000578. 
  19. ^ The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  20. ^ Information for the public about the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
  21. ^ US Patent 3995299 Radiation sources
  22. ^ Partridge, R (1983). “Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: 1. Carbazole cations”. Polymer 24: 733. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(83)90012-5. 
  23. ^ Partridge, R (1983). “Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: 2. Polyvinylcarbazole films containing antimony pentachloride”. Polymer 24: 739. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(83)90013-7. 
  24. ^ Partridge, R (1983). “Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: 3. Electroluminescent devices”. Polymer 24: 748. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(83)90014-9. 
  25. ^ Partridge, R (1983). “Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: 4. Electroluminescence using higher work function cathodes”. Polymer 24: 755. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(83)90015-0. 
  26. ^ a b Tang, C. W.; Vanslyke, S. A. (1987). “Organic electroluminescent diodes”. Applied Physics Letters 51: 913. doi:10.1063/1.98799. 
  27. ^ Burroughes, J. H.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Brown, A. R.; Marks, R. N.; MacKay, K.; Friend, R. H.; Burns, P. L.; Holmes, A. B. (1990). “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers”. Nature 347: 539. doi:10.1038/347539a0. 
  28. ^ Piromreun, Pongpun; Oh, Hwansool; Shen, Yulong; Malliaras, George G.; Scott, J. Campbell; Brock, Phil J. (2000). “Role of CsF on electron injection into a conjugated polymer”. Applied Physics Letters 77: 2403. doi:10.1063/1.1317547. 
  29. ^ D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Kowalsky, Multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes for Flat Panel Displays, Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik, TU Braunschweig, 1995.
  30. ^ Friend, R. H.; Gymer, R. W.; Holmes, A. B.; Burroughes, J. H.; Marks, R. N.; Taliani, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Santos, D. A. Dos et al. (1999). Nature 397: 121. doi:10.1038/16393. 
  31. ^ Duarte, FJ; Liao, LS; Vaeth, KM (2005). “Coherence characteristics of electrically excited tandem organic light-emitting diodes”. Optics letters 30 (22): 3072–4. doi:10.1364/OL.30.003072. PMID 16315725. 
  32. ^ Duarte, FJ (2007). “Coherent electrically excited organic semiconductors: visibility of interferograms and emission linewidth”. Optics letters 32 (4): 412–4. doi:10.1364/OL.32.000412. PMID 17356670. 
  33. ^ Hebner, T. R.; Wu, C. C.; Marcy, D.; Lu, M. H.; Sturm, J. C. (1998). “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices”. Applied Physics Letters 72: 519. doi:10.1063/1.120807. 
  34. ^ Bharathan, Jayesh; Yang, Yang (1998). “Polymer electroluminescent devices processed by inkjet printing: I. Polymer light-emitting logo”. Applied Physics Letters 72: 2660. doi:10.1063/1.121090. 
  35. ^ Gustafsson, G.; Cao, Y.; Treacy, G. M.; Klavetter, F.; Colaneri, N.; Heeger, A. J. (1992). “Flexible light-emitting diodes made from soluble conducting polymers”. Nature 357: 477. doi:10.1038/357477a0. 
  36. ^ A. J. Heeger, in W. R. Salaneck, I. Lundstrom, B. Ranby, Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials, Oxford 1993, 27–62. ISBN 0198557299
  37. ^ R. Kiebooms, R. Menon, K. Lee, in H. S. Nalwa, Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices Volume 8, Academic Press 2001, 1–86.
  38. ^ Singh, Madhusudan; Chae, Hyun Sik; Froehlich, Jesse D.; Kondou, Takashi; Li, Sheng; Mochizuki, Amane; Jabbour, Ghassan E. (2009). “Electroluminescence from printed stellate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes”. Soft Matter 5: 3002. doi:10.1039/b903531a. 
  39. ^ Liu, Jie; Lewis, Larry N.; Duggal, Anil R. (2007). “Photoactivated and patternable charge transport materials and their use in organic light-emitting devices”. Applied Physics Letters 90: 233503. doi:10.1063/1.2746404. 
  40. ^ Boroson, Michael; Tutt, Lee; Nguyen, Kelvin; Preuss, Don; Culver, Myron; Phelan, Giana (2005). “16.5L: Late-News-Paper: Non-Contact OLED Color Patterning by Radiation-Induced Sublimation Transfer (RIST)”. SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 36: 972. doi:10.1889/1.2036612. 
  41. ^ a b Sasaoka, Tatsuya; Sekiya, Mitsunobu; Yumoto, Akira; Yamada, Jiro; Hirano, Takashi; Iwase, Yuichi; Yamada, Takao; Ishibashi, Tadashi et al. (2001). “24.4L: Late-News Paper: A 13.0-inch AM-OLED Display with Top Emitting Structure and Adaptive Current Mode Programmed Pixel Circuit (TAC)”. SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 32: 384. doi:10.1889/1.1831876. 
  42. ^ Tsujimura, Takatoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Murayama, Kohji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Morooka, Mitsuo; Fukumoto, Eri; Fujimoto, Hiroki; Sekine, Junichi et al. (2003). “4.1: A 20-inch OLED Display Driven by Super-Amorphous-Silicon Technology”. SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers 34: 6. doi:10.1889/1.1832193. 
  43. ^ Graupner, Wilhelm (2000). High-resolution color organic light-emitting diode microdisplay fabrication method. pp. 11. doi:10.1117/12.411762. 
  44. ^ Chu, Ta-Ya; Chen, Jenn-Fang; Chen, Szu-Yi; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Chin H. (2006). “Highly efficient and stable inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting devices”. Applied Physics Letters 89: 053503. doi:10.1063/1.2268923. 
  45. ^ Pardo, D. A.; Jabbour, G. E.; Peyghambarian, N. (2000). “Application of Screen Printing in the Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Devices”. Advanced Materials 12: 1249. doi:3.0.CO;2-Y 10.1002/1521-4095(200009)12:173.0.CO;2-Y. 
  46. ^ Viewsonic VX931 Fastest LCD Monitor with 1ms of response time (2006)
  47. ^ “OLED TV estimated lifespan shorter then (sic) expected”. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/oled-tv-estimated-lifespan-shorter-then-expected.html. 
  48. ^ “OLED lifespan doubled?”. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/oled-lifespan-doubled.html. 
  49. ^ Toshiba and Panasonic double lifespan of OLED, January 25, 2008, Toshiba and Panasonic double lifespan of OLED
  50. ^ Cambridge Display Technology, Cambridge Display Technology and Sumation Announce Strong Lifetime Improvements to P-OLED (Polymer OLED) Material; Blue P-OLED Materials Hit 10,000 Hour Lifetime Milestone at 1,000 cd/sq.m, March 26, 2007. Retrieved on January 3, 2008.
  51. ^ “Ageless OLED”. http://digidelve.com/tech/ageless-oled/. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  52. ^ “OLED Sealing Process Reduces Water Intrusion and Increases Lifetime”. http://www.gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/oled-encapsulation.htm. 
  53. ^ Ars Technica – OLED no longer 3-5 years away
  54. ^ 4D Systems – Design Guide for Active Matrix OLED displays – Page 20 “Image Sticking”
  55. ^ “World’s Largest 21-inch OLED for TVs from Samsung”. Physorg.com. 2005-01-04. http://www.physorg.com/news2547.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  56. ^ Robischon, Noah (2008-01-09). “Samsung’s 31-Inch OLED Is Biggest, Thinnest Yet — AM-OLED”. Gizmodo. http://gizmodo.com/342912/samsungs-31+inch-oled-is-biggest-thinnest-yet. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  57. ^ Ricker, Thomas (2008-05-16). “Samsung’s 12.1-inch OLED laptop concept makes us swoon”. Engadget.com. http://www.engadget.com/2008/05/16/samsungs-12-1-inch-oled-laptop-makes-us-swoon/. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  58. ^ “Samsung: OLED Notebooks In 2010 – Laptop News”. TrustedReviews. http://www.trustedreviews.com/notebooks/news/2008/12/03/Samsung–OLED-Notebooks-In-2010/p1. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  59. ^ a b Takuya Otani, Nikkei Electronics (2008-10-29). “[FPDI] Samsung Unveils 0.05mm ‘Flapping’ OLED Panel — Tech-On!”. Techon.nikkeibp.co.jp. http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/english/NEWS_EN/20081029/160349/. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  60. ^ “40-inch OLED panel from Samsung”. Hdtvinfo.eu. 2008-10-30. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/40-inch-oled-panel-from-samsung.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  61. ^ “Samsung presents world’s first and largest transparent OLED laptop at CES”. http://www.thedesignblog.org/entry/samsung-presents-worlds-first-and-largest-transparent-oled-laptop-at-ces/. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  62. ^ “CES: Samsung shows OLED display in a photo card”. http://ces.cnet.com/8301-31045_1-10429565-269.html. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  63. ^ “MD Community Page: Sony MZ-RH1”. Minidisc.org. 2007-02-24. http://www.minidisc.org/part_Sony_MZ-RH1.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  64. ^ “Sony announces a 27-inch OLED TV”. HDTV Info Europe. 2008-05-29. http://www.hdtvinfo.eu/news/hdtv-articles/sony-announces-a-27-inch-oled-tv.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  65. ^ CNET News, Sony to sell 11-inch OLED TV this year, April 12, 2007, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  66. ^ Engadget, The Sony Drive XEL-1 OLED TV: 1,000,000:1 contrast starting December 1st, October 1, 2007, retrieved on October 1, 2007.
  67. ^ Australian IT, Sony bends video display, May 28, 2007, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  68. ^ “Sony announces the new WALKMAN W and X Series”. Sony.co.uk. http://www.sony.co.uk/article/new-walkman-mp3-player-x-and-w-series. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  69. ^ Sony’s 3.5- and 11-inch OLEDs are just 0.008- and 0.012-inches thin – Engadget.
  70. ^ AV Watch article (Google translation from Japanese).
  71. ^ Japanese firms team up on energy-saving OLED panels, AFP July 10, 2008
  72. ^ Athowon, Desire (2008-10-04). “Sony Working on Bendable, Folding OLED Screens”. ITProPortal.com. http://www.itproportal.com/articles/2008/10/04/sony-working-bendable-folding-oled-screens/. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  73. ^ “Sony: we’re committed to OLEDs TVs, it’s the “next display technology””. Oled-info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/sony-were-committed-oleds-tvs-its-next-display-technology. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  74. ^ a b “Sony OLED 3D TV eyes-on”. Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2010/01/07/sony-oled-3d-tv-eyes-on/. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  75. ^ OLLA project, EU OLLA website, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  76. ^ Businesswire, “GE Demonstrates World’s First Roll-to-Roll Manufactured Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)”, March 11, 2008. Retrieved on March 11, 2008.
  77. ^ GE Global research blog, “World’s first demonstration of ‘Roll-to-Roll’ Processed OLEDs”. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  78. ^ TV cancer treatment article, physics.org, retrieved on August 26, 2009.
  79. ^ “LG Elec to unveil 15-inch OLED TV for sale in Nov”. Reuters.com retrieved on Aug 29, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSSEO33673720090830. 
  80. ^ “LG 15寸纤薄OLED电视官方图赏”. OLEDW.com retrieved on Aug 30, 2009. http://www.oledw.com/news/200908/1621/. 
  81. ^ “OLED Shipments for Primary Cell-Phone Displays to Rise Eightfold by 2015”. Isuppli.com retrieved on 09/03/2009. http://www.isuppli.com/News/Pages/OLED-Shipments-for-Primary-Cell-PhoneDisplays-to-Rise-Two-Hundred-fold-by-2015.aspx. 
  82. ^ Electronic News, OLEDs Replacing LCDs in Mobile Phones, April 7, 2005, retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  83. ^ Michael Kanellos, “Start-up creates flexible sheets of light”, CNet News.com, December 6, 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  84. ^ AP, “New machine prints sheets of light”, CNN.com, 10 October 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
  85. ^ “OQO OLED Notebook Is A Luminous Beauty | Gadget Lab | Wired.com”. Blog.wired.com. 2009-01-09. http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2009/01/oqo-oled-notebo.html. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  86. ^ “Philips Lumiblades”. Lumiblade.com. 2009-08-09. http://www.lumiblade.com. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  87. ^ “Sprint to sell high-end AM-OLED phones from Samsung”. Reuters retrieved on 2009-08-06. http://www.reuters.com/article/rbssConsumerGoodsAndRetailNews/idUSN0651549520090806. 
  88. ^ search patents at www.uspto.gov
  89. ^ OLED-Info.com, Kodak Signs OLED Cross-License Agreement, retrieved on March 14, 2008.
  90. ^ “ANWELL: Higher profit, higher margins going forward”. nextinsight.com. http://www.nextinsight.com.sg/content/view/57/55/. 
  91. ^ “Chi Mei EL (CMEL)”. OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/oled_panel_makers/chi_mei_el_cmel. 
  92. ^ “Organic Light Emitting Diodes”. dupont.com. http://www2.dupont.com/Displays/en_US/products_services/oled/. 
  93. ^ “GE Global Research Makes OLED Breakthrough”. Tech Valley.com. http://www.techvalley.org/Pages/News _ Events/Tech Valley News/3-11-2008 (1).html. 
  94. ^ “LG OLEDs”. OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/lg-oled. 
  95. ^ “SAMSUNG OLEDs”. OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/samsung-oled. 
  96. ^ “Sony OLEDs”. OLED-Info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/sony-oled. 
  97. ^ “Samsung SDI — The world’s largest OLED display maker”. Oled-info.com. http://www.oled-info.com/market_reports/samsung_sdi_the_worlds_largest_oled_display_maker. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  98. ^ a b c “Frost & Sullivan Recognizes Samsung SDI for Market Leadership in the OLED Display Market | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET”. Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_July_17/ai_n27929051. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  99. ^ Passive Matrix OLEDs (PMOLEDs) and AMOLEDs.

Further reading

  • P. Chamorro-Posada, J. Martín-Gil, P. Martín-Ramos, L.M. Navas-Gracia, Fundamentos de la Tecnología OLED (Fundamentals of OLED Technology). University of Valladolid, Spain (2008). ISBN 978-84-936644-0-4. Available online, with permission from the authors, at the webpage: http://www.scribd.com/doc/13325893/Fundamentos-de-la-Tecnologia-OLED
  • Shinar, Joseph (Ed.), Organic Light-Emitting Devices: A Survey. NY: Springer-Verlag (2004). ISBN 0-387-95343-4.
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Luminescence, Display Materials and Devices, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2003). ISBN 1-58883-010-1. Volume 1: Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
  • Hari Singh Nalwa (Ed.), Handbook of Organic Electronics and Photonics, Volume 1-3. American Scientific Publishers, Los Angeles (2008). ISBN 1-58883-095-0.

RABIYA TANVEER.                                                                







2.PHOTONICS 21,EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM. EMAIL:munaizag@gmail.com                      


About the Author

lecturer in physics & electronics dept. of physics & electronics, chaitanya degree & p.g college, kishan pura ,hanamkonda, warangal.A.P.

LG Rumor Review

Smart Phones Voip

smart phones voip
smart phones voip
How do I install and use my wireless router for internet access?

I’ve posted a similar question recently, but I still can’t get everything to work together -I’m not very good with technology… Help please!

We have a regular desktop computer, a cable modem, and VoIP phone service all completely installed, functioning together, good to go. Now, I just bought a new laptop and a wireless router that I want to add to all of this. I want to be able to access the internet wirelessly, with my laptop. That’s not too much to ask, right? Right. But, having the VoIP phone service connections to the modem is throwing off the instructions that I should be able to follow when connecting the router. The directions don’t explain what to do in my case. Does anyone have a clue and can talk me through the proper connections and what goes where???? I’d really appreciate it! BestBuy’s GeekSquad will cost $160 to come to my home and do it for me…. I really don’t want to pay that! A free answer from a smart person would be awesome!

plug in modem. plug wireless router into ethernet port in back of modem.

think of a router as a coax tv splitter. it splits the signal of the internet.

now your router has 4-8 ethernet ports instead of just the ONE your modem has.

plug everything into the router. your laptop is wireless therefore you need no wire for that.


Connecting VoIP with Public Phone Networks : DigInfo

Alosmart Phone Card

alosmart phone card

Smart Phone Wifi

smart phone wifi
Smartphones with WiFi do get free internet in a WiFi hotspot?

I also wanted to know whether a cell phone without a plan for which there is still a WiFi connection and I would be able to get online

If your phone does not require a SIM card works, you'll be fine. It's free, because you not with cell phone network.

A6161 Quad Band Android WIFI Smart Phone White

Mobile Cell Phone Companies

mobile cell phone companies
If I switch cell phone companies, can I keep the phone number from my old provider?

I want to switch from Verizon to T-Mobile, but I want to keep my cell phone number..everything else i do not care about (except contacts but i can add them in my self) so can i keep my number?

Absolutely yes , most companies will get your number from your old phone company ,, and apply it to your new phone .

Icasa lowers cell phone costs
South Africa’s communications authority, Icasa, has set down regulations that will progressively lower the cost of using Cell Phones over the next three years.

Ads by Google

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 166

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 166

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 203

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 203

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: Access denied for user 'dman4u'@'localhost' (using password: NO) in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 231

Warning: mysql_query() [function.mysql-query]: A link to the server could not be established in /home4/dman4u/public_html/CELLMOBILEPHONES.ORG/wp-content/plugins/astickypostorderer/astickypostorderer.php on line 231