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Smart Phone Usage Statistics Canada

Smart Phone Usage Statistics canada
[mage source=”flickr”]smart phone usage statistics canada[/mage]

Satellite television

History
passed the first satellite TV signal was from Europe to the Telstar satellite over North America in 1962. The first geostationary Communication satellite, Syncom 2 was launched in 1963 to life. The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird) was launched into orbit on 6 April 1965. The first national network of satellite television, called Orbita was in the Soviet Union was created in 1967, and was on the principle the use of the highly elliptical Molniya satellite for re-broadcasting and the provision of TV signal to ground downlink stations. The first domestic North American satellite Television wearing geostationary Anik 1 was Canada, which was established in 1972 to life. ATS-6, the world's first experimental educational and Direct Broadcast Satellite, was in 1974 Launched. to take the first Soviet geostationary satellites called Ekran Direct-To-Home TV, was launched in 1976 to life.
Technology
Satellites for TV signals are usually either naturally highly elliptical (with inclination of + / -63.4 degrees and orbital period of about 12 hours, even as Molniya orbit known) or geostationary Orbit 37,000 kilometers (22,300 miles) above the earth equator.
Satellite television, like other communications by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna in an uplink facility located. Uplink satellite dishes are very large, as much as 9-12 meters (30-40 feet) in diameter. The results in larger diameter and more precisely targeted increases the signal strength at the satellite. The uplink antenna is to be transferred to a specific satellite uplink and the signals pointed out within a certain Frequency range, so that a vote of the transponder, that frequency range are received on board the satellite. The transponder transmits "the signals for Earth return, but known in a different frequency band (a process of translation used to avoid interference with the uplink signal), typically in the C-band (48 GHz) or Ku-band (1218 GHz), or both. The leg of the signal from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called downlink.
A typical satellite has up to 32 transponders Ku-band and up to 24 for a C-band only satellite, or more for hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 27 MHz and 50 MHz. Each geosynchronous C-band satellite needs to be a distance of 2 degrees by the next satellite (to avoid problems). In the distance can be a Ku degrees. This means that there is an upper Limit of 360 / 2 = 180 geostationary satellites in the C-band and 360 / 1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to the terrestrial Ku-band transmission is affected by rain (as water an excellent absorber of microwaves in this particular frequency).
The down-linked satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance (see inverse-square law), is received by a parabolic dish, which reflects the weak signal the dish center collection point. Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn. This feedhorn is essentially the flared front-end part of the waveguide, collects the signals in the near focal point and '' it leads to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter or LNB. The LNB amplifies the relatively weak signals, filters the block of frequencies in which the satellite TV signals are transmitted, and converts the block of spectrum to a lower Frequency in the L-band range. The development of the LNB was one of necessity and invention.
The original C-Band satellite TV systems used a low-noise amplifier with the feedhorn at the focal point of the mirror. The amplified signal was then over, and sometimes very expensive 50 Ohm impedance filled gas supplied to a hardline coaxial cable Indoor receiver or, in other designs fed to a buck (a mixer and a voltage controlled oscillator with some filter circuitry) for downconversion Intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled, which is typically of a voltage-controlled oscillator with the tuning voltage fed via a separate cable to the headend. But this Design developed.
Designs for microstrip based converters for Amateur Radio frequencies were adjusted for the 4 GHz C-band. The focus of these designs was concept block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, and technically easy to handle block of frequencies (IF).
The advantages of using a LNB are that cheaper cable could be used to the indoor receiver to be connected with the satellite TV dish and LNB, and that the technology for handling with the signal in the L-Band and UHF was far cheaper than the costs of processing the signal at C-band frequencies. The switch to cheaper technology from the 50 ohm impedance cable and N-Connectors of the early C-band systems, the cheaper 75 Ohm F-connector technology and allowed the early satellite TV receiver to use, what changed in reality, UHF TV tuners which selected the satellite television channel for down conversion to another lower intermediate frequency of 70 MHz, where it was demodulated centered. This shift allowed the satellite television DTH industry from a hobbyist largely a built in receiver in small numbers and complete systems were expensive (change cost thousands of dollars) to a far more commercial mass production.
Direct Broadcast Satellite dishes with an LNB, the LNB fitted integrated with the feedhorn.
The satellite receiver demodulates and converts the signals into the desired form (outputs for television, audio, data, etc.). Sometimes contains the recipient to decrypt to decode, or the receiver is then called an Integrated Receiver / Decoder or IRD. The cable connects the receiver to the LNB or LNB, the low Loss type RG-6 quad shield RG-6 or RG-11, etc. It can not be standard RG-59.
Standards
Analogue TV will be broadcast on satellite without encryption in general or scrambled, or sent in NTSC, PAL, SECAM or television standards. The analog signal is modulated and frequency of an FM signal, which is known as baseband converted. This includes the baseband video signal and the audio subcarrier (s). The audio subcarrier is further demodulated to a raw audio signal.
If the signal is a digitized TV signal or multiplex signals, it is typically QPSK.
In general, digital television, including that transmitted via satellites, are generally based on open standards such as MPEG and DVB-S and ISDB-S.
The conditional access encryption / scrambling methods include BISS, Conax, Digicipher, Irdeto, Nagravision, PowerVu, Viaccess, Videocipher and VideoGuard. Many conditional access systems has been compromised.
The categories of use
There are three primary types of satellite television Usage: reception direct by the viewer, reception by local television affiliates, or reception by headends for distribution across terrestrial cable systems.
Directly at the viewer reception includes direct broadcast satellite or DBS receive and television programs will or TVRO, both for households and businesses, including Hotels, etc.
Direct Broadcast via Satellite
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) also known as "Direct-To-Home" is known to a relatively new development in the World of television distribution. irect satellite can either refer to the communications, satellites provide DBS service itself or the actual television service. DBS systems are commonly as a "mini-dish" called systems. DBS uses the upper part of the Ku-band, and part of the Ka-band.
Modified DBS systems can also run on C-band satellites and have been around have been used by some networks in the past by some countries against reception of Ku-band transmissions.
Most of the DBS systems use the DVB-S standard for the transfer. With the pay-TV services, encrypts the data stream, and requires proprietary reception equipment. While the underlying technology is similar occupied, is the pay-TV technology proprietary, often consisting of a Conditional Access Module and smart card.
This measure assures satellite television providers that only authorized, paid subscribers have access to pay-TV content, but at the same time to free-to-Air (FTA enable) channels to also by the people with standard equipment (DBS receiver be seen without the Conditional Access Modules) available in the market.
Television receive only
The term Television receive only, or TVRO emerged in the early Days of satellite TV receiving them from commercial satellite television uplink and downlink operations (transmit and receive differentiate). That was before a DTH satellite TV Broadcast industry. Satellite TV channels at that time were designed to receive cable television network rather than from home viewers. Satellite TV receiver systems were formed mostly by hobbyists and engineers. These TVRO system operated were bound mainly to the C-band frequencies and the dishes great, typically about 3 m (10 ft) in diameter. Consequently TVRO is often referred to as "big dish" or "Big Ugly Dish" (BUD) called satellite TV.
TVRO Systems are designed to receive analog and digital satellite feeds, both for television and audio from both C-band and Ku-band transponders on FSS-type satellites. The higher frequency Ku-band systems tend to be Direct To Home systems and a smaller satellite dish because of the higher power transfer and a greater use of antenna gain.
TVRO Systems tend to use larger rather than smaller satellite dish antennas, since it is likely that the owner of a TVRO system would be a C-band setup have instead of a Ku-band setup. Additional receiver boxes allow for different types of digital satellite reception, as DVB/MPEG-2 and 4DTV.
The narrow beam Width of a normal parabolic satellite antenna means it can only receive signals from a single satellite at a time. Simulsat Vertex RSI or torus, is a quasi-parabolic Satellite Earth Station Antenna, is suitable for receiving satellite transmissions from 35 or more C-and Ku-band satellites simultaneously.
Direct to Home TV
Today get Most satellite TV customers in developed markets its TV programming through a Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) provider, such as Dish TV or DTH platform. The provider chooses the programs and broadcasts them to the participants as a set package. Basically the objective provider dozens or even hundreds of channels to bring to the client television in a form approaches to competition with cable TV. Unlike earlier programming, the broadcast provider is completely digital, which means it has a great picture and stereo sound quality. Early satellite television was in the C-band broadcast – radio in the 3.4-gigahertz (GHz) to 7 GHz frequency range. Digital broadcast satellite transmits programming in the Ku frequency range (10 GHz to 14 GHz). There are five major components involved in a direct to home (DTH) satellite system: the programming source, the broadcast center, the satellite, the satellite dish and receiver.
Programming sources are only the channels that provide programming for broadcast. The supplier (the DTH platform doesn) create original programming itself, it pays other companies (HBO, for example, or on ESPN or STAR TV or Sahara, etc.) for the right to have their content Satellite be broadcast. In this way, the provider is a reseller of programming sources. (Cable television networks is also working on the same principle.) The broadcast center, the central Hub of the system. On the broadcast playout center or the uplink and able to receive the TV signals from various sources, programming provider, compresses the signals using digital compression (scrambling if necessary), and beams a broadcast signal at the correct satellite. The satellite receive the signal from the transmitter and rebroadcast it on the floor. The viewer takes the signal from the satellite dish (or multiple satellites in the same part of the sky) and passes it to the receiver in the viewer home. The receiver processes the signals and passes them to a standard television. These are the steps in detail:
Programming
Satellite TV providers get programming from two main sources: International turnaround channels (such as HBO, ESPN and CNN, STAR TV, SET, B4U etc) and various local channels (Sabe TV, Sahara TV, Doordarshan, etc). Most of the turnaround channels also provide programming for cable television, is so often some of the DTH platforms in some specific exclusive channels to add more subscriptions to win. Turnaround Channels usually have a distribution center that beams their programming to a geostationary satellite. pick up the broadcast center uses large satellite dishes that analog and digital signals from different sources.
Broadcasting Center
The broadcast center converts all of this programming language in a high-quality, uncompressed digital Data stream. At this point the stream contains a large amount of data, about 270 megabits per second (Mbps) for each channel. In order to transmit the signal from there, has the broadcast center to compress it. Otherwise it would be too big to handle for the satellite. The providers use the MPEG-2 compressed video format the same format used save your movies on DVDs. With MPEG-2 compression, the provider can reduce the 270-Mbit / s data stream to about 3 or 10 Mbit / s (depending on the type of programming). This is the crucial step that was taken DTH service a success. With digital compression, a typical satellite can transmit about 200 channels. Without digital Compression, it can be transmitted over 30 channels. On the broadcast center, is the high-quality digital video stream of a MPEG-2 encoder that converts the programming MPEG-2 video the correct size and format for the satellite receiver in your home.
Encryption and transmission
After the video is compressed, the provider needs to encrypt it in order to access people from keeping it free of charge. Encryption scrambles the digital data in a way that can decrypt (Converted back into usable data) if the recipient has the correct decoding satellite receiver with a decryption algorithm and security keys. Once the signal is compressed and encrypted, winner of the broadcast center is just off one of its satellites. The satellite takes the signal, amplifies it and radiates it back to Earth, where the Viewers can pick it up.
The court
A satellite dish is just a special type of antenna designed to focus on a specific broadcast source. The standard dish consists of a parabolic (bowl-shaped) surface and a central feed horn. A signal is transmitted, a controller sends it through the horn, and the dish focuses the signal into a relatively narrow beam. The dish can be on the receiving end of transmission of information, but can only receive. The receiving antenna works in the exact opposite direction of the transmitter. When a light beam hits the curved dish, the parabola shape reflects the radio signal inside to a certain point, just like a concave mirror focuses light at a certain point. The curved dish focuses incoming radio waves on the feed horn. In this case is the point of the dish feed horn, the signal receiving on the device. In an ideal setup, there aren no major obstacles between the satellite and the antenna the court receives a clear signal. In some systems, the dish on the signals from two or more satellites at the same time. The satellites can closely enough together, that a regular cup with a single horn can pick up signals from both. This compromises quality somewhat, because the shell ISN directly to one or more Target the satellite. A new dish design uses two or more horns to pick up different satellite signals. As the rays from different satellite hit the curved dish, they reflect at different angles, so that one beam hits one of the horns and another beam hits a different horn. The central element in the feed horn is the low noise level Block downconverter or LNB. The LNB amplifies the signal bounce off the dish and filters out the noise (signals do not carry programming). The LNB directs the filtered strengthened Signal to the satellite receiver inside the viewer's house.
The receiver
Further information: Set-Top-Box
The final component in the entire satellite TV system is the receiver. The receiver has four essential jobs: It de-scrambles the encrypted signal. To unlock the signal, the recipient requires the proper decoder chip for the application package. The provider can communicate with the chip to make on the satellite signal to make the necessary adjustments decoding programs. The provider may occasionally send a signal that disrupt illegal de-scramblers, as an electronic countermeasure (ECM) against illegal users. It takes the digital MPEG-2 signal and converts it into an analog format that a standard TV can recognize. Since the receiver spits out only one channel at a time when you can watch one program and tape another. You can also see two different programs on two TVs to connect to the same recipient. To do these things that are standard on conventional cable to do, must You buy an additional receiver. Some receivers have a number of other functions. Take a programming language schedule signal from the provider and present this information in an on-screen programming guide. Many receivers have parental-out options, and some have built-in digital video recorders (DVRs), with the record you "Pause Live TV or to be on a hard drive. While digital satellite broadcast service is still missing, some of the basic features of conventional cable (the ability to easily split signals between different TVs and VCRs, for example) are varied programming selection and extended service areas has now seen as an alternative.
Satellite television by region and country
Africa
South African-based Multichoice's DStv is the main digital satellite TV provider in South Africa the Sahara, broadcasting mainly in English but also Portuguese, German and Afrikaans. Canal Horizons, part of the French Canal + is the most important Provider in French-speaking Africa. Another vendor in the satellite-television circuit in Africa is MyTvAfrica, a subsidiary of Dubai Strong Technologies. Satellite television was far more successful than in Africa cable can primarily because the infrastructure for cable television does not exist and would be expensive, since majority of Africans do not install Provide cable TV paid. It will also provide a cable network is expensive because of the need to cover large and sparsely populated areas, but there are some terrestrial pay-TV and MMDS services.
The start made by Free2view satellite TV available to the masses in Africa. Free2view currently broadcasts as an exclusive news channel MSNBC and is about the development of additional channels.
GTV, a British-based company has become the second in sub-Saharan Africa providing digital satellite TV with the Focus initially on Kenya Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Congo ETC.
Nigeria
DStv traditionally had a monopoly over Nigeria's three satellite television sector, but new companies, start-tv HiTVmytv and trend to compete in this sector
Sudan
Sudan TV, the state-owned national network is available via satellite and Broadcast.
The Americas
United States
It has been suggested that this section in a new article entitled satellite television in the United States be split. (Discuss)
Currently, there are two primary providers of satellite TV subscription-based service available to United States consumers: Dish Network and DirecTV.
In the past three decades, various U.S. satellite services have come and gone or combined to form the current primary care. In 1975, RCA Satcom 1, the first satellite designed specifically for use of integrated then created the three national television stations (CBS, NBC and ABC). Later that year, HBO leased a transponder on Satcom 1 and began transmission of television programs via satellite to cable networks. Owners of cable systems paid $ 10,000 to 3-meter dishes install to TV signals in the C-band received. In 1976, Taylor Howard built an amateur system, which consisted of a converted military surplus radar dish and a satellite receiver designed and constructed by Howard, for satellite reception at home. Taylor's system could be used for receiving TV programs both from American and Soviet communication satellites be. In 1977, Pat Robertson launched the first satellite-delivered basic cable service called the CBN Cable Network. In 1979, the Satellite Home Viewers Act allowed homeowners to own in the U.S. operate and own home satellite system, consisting of C-band equipment from a variety of manufacturers, which were parts for systems such as Taylor Howard's started and a great controversy, which channels could be received by whom.
BUSA a direct-to-Home Service was founded in 1981. In the early 1990s, this partnership with Hughes and continued until 1998, bought by DirecTV.
In 1991 Primestar launched the first North American DBS service. Hughes DirecTV, the first national high-powered upper Ku-band DBS system, went online in 1994. The DirecTV system became the new vehicle for delivery of BUSA. In 1996, EchoStar Dish Network online in the United States and has went to similar success as DirecTV primary competitors. The Alpha STAR Service in 1996 launched and went into bankruptcy in 1997. Dominion Video Satellite Inc's Sky Angel also went online in the United States in 1996 with its DBS service geared towards "faith and family". Primestar sold its assets to Hughes in 1999 and switched from DBS to an IPTV platform.
In 2004, Cablevision Voom service went online, specifically catering to the emerging market for HDTV owners and aficionados, but folded in April 2005. The service xclusive high-definition channels have been migrated to the Dish Network system. Commercial DBS services are the most important Competition for cable TV service, although the two types of services significantly different regulatory requirements (for Thus, a cable television public access requirements, and the two types of distribution have different regulations regarding carriage of local stations).
90cm multiple-LNA toroidal satellite dish
The majority of ethnic-language broadcasts in North America on Ku band free-to-air place. The largest concentration of ethnic programming is on Galaxy 19 at 97 W. Pittsburgh International Telecommunications and GlobeCast World TV offers a mix of free and pay-TV ethnic channels in the international standard DVB-S format, as well as others. Home2US Communications Inc. also offers several ethnic channels on AMC-4 at 101 W, as well as other free and pay-TV channels. Several US-English Language Network Partners (representing CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, FOX, CW (formerly the WB and UPN), ION network, and MyNetworkTV) are available as free-to-air broadcasts, there are the three US-Spanish language networks (Univisin, Telefutura and Telemundo). The number of free-to-air specialty channels is otherwise rather limited. Specific FTA offerings tend to appear and usually disappear fairly often, and with little or no notice, although sites such as LyngSat do track the changing availability of both free and pay channels worldwide.
On 7 October 2009, planned to NAB TV Board Paul Karpowicz chair to testify before the Senate Communications Subcommittee that broadcasters would be willing to allow the distant signals to subscribers, to continue to do so, even if the digital transition resulted in those subscribers receiving stations that they did not before. The NAB has, however, the supply of new distant signals when a digital signal was available. The Satellite TV Modernization Act was passed by the end of 2009. The House bill also allows Dish Network to offer distant signals. On 5 November, said Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy, he hopes for a "short-term agreement" on the bill left the Committee 24 September. If the Senate agrees, the House will approve the bill, and if the two versions can not be reconciled, could import the license for the signals, which expires at the end of the year may be extended. The House version included an agreement with EchoStar, as far as possible, all 210 markets could receive signals, and EchoStar could again deliver distant signals.
The Senate approved Commerce a version of the bill on 19 November, without an amendment requiring local signals in all markets in three years, although a study carried out on would be why 30 markets still had a problem. Before the Senate approval, the two versions of the bill will have to be reconciled, the judiciary Committee had set a short market, while the Committee commerce PBS in HD requires earlier.
The House has the Satellite Home Viewer Act reauthorization third December. It included both the House Commerce Committee and House Judiciary Committee releases and renews the ability to use distant signals for five years allowed, Dish Network distant signals to offer again and requires 28 markets to receive signals not available locally. The bill also deals with some copyright issues and the necessary Dish Network HD signals up to 2011 non-commercial supply instead of 2013th
One possible problem: determining who can not receive a signal is still to analogous as digital TV.
To 11 February 2010, said the Senate majority leader, Harry Reid, the satellite was part of a reauthorization bill Jobs. Rick Boucher, House Chairman for communication and the Internet, believed the bill would pass. Deadline is March, as it has been extended 60 days.
Canada
At present There are two primary providers of satellite TV subscription-based service available to Canadian consumers: TV and Bell Shaw Direct.The CRTC has refused American Satellite Services License, but hundreds of thousands (to have a million by some estimates) of Canadians access or have American services in general, these services are accessed, made to a U.S. address in the account and are paid in U.S. dollars, although some American viewers signals received by pirate decryption. Whether such an activity is gray market or black market is the source of often heated debate between those who want more choice and those who argue that the protection Canadian firms and Canadian culture is more important. In October 2004, judges decided Danile Ct Quebec Canada Act Radiocommunication Conference in direct violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, as far as it prohibits the reception of unlicensed foreign television services. The ruling has to eliminate the federal government a one-year deadline for this violation of the Constitution. But this appeal to Supreme Court of Canada decisions and, at the last word in late summer 2004 was expected to be appealed. [Edit] In addition, continued Canadian satellite providers are plagued by the unquestionably black market devices which "pirate" or "steal" their signals as well as by a number of otherwise completely lawful devices which re-programmed to pirate TV can be received. Although there are no official statistics, the use of American satellite services in Germany seems as some would claim in 2004, this is probably due to a combination of declining to be more aggressive enforcement of the police and an unfavorable exchange rate between the Canadian and U.S. currencies. As the U.S. dollar has to decline in 2005 international against other currencies, the decline DirecTV in terms of audience numbers in Canada may also not related to differences in costs are as much as the series of smart card swaps which the first three generations of DirecTV access Maps (F made, H and HU) all obsolete.
Latin America
Latin America main satellite system are SKY Latin America, about 1.4 million subscribers in each of Brazil and Mexico and Latin America has DirecTV, the service provides the rest of the Americas, with a total of around 1.3 million subscribers. Pay-TV is not popular among Latin Americans because fees are expensive in PPP.
The service includes Brazilian Digital TV with Dolby Digital surround support offered, MTS, and multiple subtitle options, a first for the Brazilian market. A recent update to Sky's services in Brazil is Sky +, which the customer to a program while another, more Sky HD offers currently accommodate up to 29 High Definition channels can. Services are relatively expensive, so the market penetration is still limited.
Asia
Bangladesh
There are several satellite providers in Bangladesh. The most important are listed below: – – # Bangla Vision – NTV # – # RTV – ATN Bangla # – # Channel I – Channel # 1 – # Kasturi – # DD – # Boishaki TV – ETV # – # DESH TV – TV Diganta # – # Islamic TV – # STVUS –
Kazakhstan
The first TV channel salellite in Kazakhstan, CaspioNet was of the Khabar news agency started in 2002.
Malaysia
Astro's "mini-antenna.
Malaysia only satellite television operator, Measat Broadcast Network Systems (a subsidiary of Astro All Asia Networks plc) launched Astro in 1996. It holds exclusive rights from the Malaysian government to satellite television services in the country to offer over the 2017.
Japan
The average Broadcasting Satellite for experimental purposes (BSE) was approved by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MOPT) designed and developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) since 1974. Then cried the first Japanese experimental broadcasting satellite services, BSE or Yuri, was established in 1978 established. NHK started experimental broadcasting TV program with BS-2a satellite on May 1984. The satellite BS-2a was started in preparation for the start of full scale 2-channel broadcasts. Broadcasting Satellite BS-2a was the first national DBS (direct broadcast satellite), transmitting signals directly into the home of TV viewers. Position control of the satellite conducted was with the three axial (zero momentum), and design life was five years. The TV transponder units are designed to sufficiently strengthen transmitted signals to enable Reception by small, 40 or 60 cm home-use satellite dishes. The satellite was equipped with 3 TV transponders (including reserve units). However, a malfunctioning transponder 2 months after launch (March 23, 1984) and a second transponder malfunction 3 months after launch (May 3, 1984). This gave the planned satellite-radio be adapted to quickly to test broadcasting on a single channel. Later, NHK started regular service (NTSC) and experimental HDTV broadcasting using BS-2b on June 1989. Some Japanese manufacturer of consumer electronics devices at home began to provide TVset, VCRs and even home acoustic systems equipped with integrated satellite tuner or receiver. In such electronic goods had a specific BS logo. In April 1991, Japanese company JSB started pay TV service while BS-3 communication satellite in use was. In the year 1996 will total number of households that satellite broadcasting more than 10 million €. The modern two satellite systems in use in Japan are BSAT and JCSAT, the modern digital WOWOW Broadcasting Satellite service uses BSAT satellites, while other system of digital TV broadcasting SKY PerfecTV! Uses JCSAT satellites.
Pakistan
In recent years, a lot of investment in television industry in Pakistan. There are more than 90 satellite channels operating in Pakistan and about 40 directly operate their transmission from Dubai, Thailand, Bangkok and the UK. [Edit]
Philippines
Dream Satellite TV is pay DTH service of Philippine Multimedia Service Inc. (PMSI)
Cignal Digital TV is pay DTH service by Mediascape, Inc.
G Sat is pay DTH service of FUBC.
Thailand
See also: TrueVision
and the media in Thailand
TrueVision is the leading pay-TV service from Thailand Cable TV, operating in Bangkok and satellite TV throughout the country. TrueVision is True Corporation. Viet Nam Sat is only in 4 / started in 2008 and GMM Grammy is the second pay-TV service in Thailand
Australasia
Australia
Satellite TV in Australia has proven to be far more feasible option than cable television are due to the large distances between population centers. The first service to come online in Australia Galaxy, which is adopted by Cable Television giant Foxtel, which now operates both cable and satellite services was made was all the main cities (except Darwin and Hobart) and the whole of Western Australia. The major metropolitan areas Rival was Optus Vision, while rural areas are served by Austar, both of which just rebroadcast Foxtel than in 2005. In 2006 SelecTV began operating, aiming at providing relatively low cost packages and catering to specific market segments.
New Zealand
In New Zealand, SKY Network Television offers multichannel digital satellite TV, in addition to its non-digital terrestrial UHF service. The newly released Freeview service is also available on the Optus D1 satellite, and a high definition digital terrestrial Service.
Europe
Continental Western Europe
In Europe, DBS satellite services found mainly on Astra and Hotbird satellites (operated by Eutelsat.) BSkyB (known as Sky) is the United Kingdom. SKY Italia, Canal Digitaal and UPC being the main provider in Italy, the Netherlands and Central Europe.
The market share of DBS satellite services in 2004 was 21.4% of all TV households, but this varies widely from country to country. For example, in Germany, with many free-to-air TV stations, DBS market share of almost 40% and in Belgium and the Netherlands, only about 7%, due to widespread cable networks with exclusive content.
Russian Federation
The first Soviet communication satellite, called Molniya (or "Lightning"), was launched in 1965. By November 1967 the national system of satellite television, called Orbit was used. The system consisted of three highly elliptical Molniya satellite, Moscow-based ground uplink facilities and about 20 downlink stations, in cities and towns remote regions of Siberia and the Far East. Each station had received a 12-meter parabolic antenna and transmitters for broadcasting new TV signal to local households.
Though a large part of the Soviet central regions were not yet covered by Molniya satellite transponders. By 1976 Soviet engineers developed a relatively simple and inexpensive System of satellite television (especially for Central and Northern Siberia). It consisted of geostationary satellites called Ekran with powerful 300 W UHF transponders, a broadcasting uplink station and various simple receiving stations equipped in various cities and villages of Siberian region. The typical receiving station, also called Ekran, represented itself as a Home-use analog satellite receiver equipped with a simple Yagi-Uda antenna. Later, Ekran satellites were replaced by more advanced Ekran-M satellite series.
In 1979, Soviet Engineers developed Moskva (or Moscow) system of broadcasting and providing TV signals via satellite. New type of geostationary communications satellites, called Gorizont, were initiated. They were equipped by powerful onboard transponders, so that was the size of the receiving parabolic antennas of downlink stations reduced to 4 and 2.5 meters (compared to earlier 12 – meter dishes of standard orbital downlink stations).
Until 1989, called an improved version of the Moskva system of satellite television been Global'naya Moskva (Moscow or Global). The system includes a few geostationary Gorizont and Express type of communication satellites. Global satellite TV signal from Moscow could be received in any country in the world except Canada and north-western United States.
Modern Russian satellite broadcasting services based on powerful geostationary Buses such as Gals, Express, Yamal and Eutelsat, a large amount of free-to-air TV channels available to millions of households. Pay-TV becomes more popular among the Russian TV viewers. The NTV Russia news company, owned by Gazprom, NTV Plus package to 560,000 households sends reaches over 1.5 million viewers. –
Britain and Ireland
Sky digital "mini-antenna"
The first commercial DBS service in the United Kingdom, Sky Television, was launched in 1989 and used the newly launched ASTRA satellite, with 4 analog TV channels. The channels and subsequent VideoCrypt video encryption system uses the existing PAL broadcast standard. This Sky gave a decisive advantage over the winner of the British state DBS license, BSB.
In the following year, after many delays, BSB was launched, broadcasting five channels (Well, Galaxy, format, The Movie Channel, The Power Station and the sports channel) in D-MAC and use the € Cypher video encryption system that heavily on the general instruments Videocipher system was used in the U.S.. While the BOD system was technologically more advanced than the PAL system and one of the main selling points BOD Squarial the offer was an expensive flat plate antenna and LNB. Sky system used conventional and cheap dish and LNB technology.
The competition between the two Companies was fierce and bidding wars for the British rights to movies. Sky kept costs to a bare minimum, operating from an industrial estate in Isleworth in West London. BSB had expensive offices in London (Marco Polo House). The two services, which later merged British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB), although the new form BSkyB was really Sky. The technologically advanced BSB D-MAC/EuroCypher system was gradually replaced with Sky's VideoCrypt video encryption system.
In 1994 17% of the group was floated on the London Stock Exchange (listed with ADRs on the New York Stock Exchange) and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation owns a 35% interest.
By 1999, after the launch of several satellites (At 19.2E SES Astra, the number of channels had about 60 and BSkyB launched the first subscription-based digital TV platform in the UK and offers a range of 300 channels broadcast from the Astra satellites at 28.2E increased under the brand name Sky Digital. BSkyB's analogue service on 31 Completed in December 2001 and all customers have migrated to Sky Digital.
In May 2008, a free-to-air satellite service from BBC and ITV Freesat was launched under the brand name, the implementation of a variety of channels, including some of the content in HD formats.
Nordic countries
The first satellite service that was set specifically to the Northern Region TV3, which in 1987 launched. With the launch of Astra 1A gotten, the TV3 channel even easier. The first Nordic-specific satellite, Tele-X was launched in 1989. The services directed at Scandinavia were then between several satellites distributed. In 1993, the former BSB satellites were bought by a Swedish and a Norwegian company, respectively. These two satellites were renamed Thor 1 and Sirius 1, moved, determines new positions and broadcasting services for people in the Nordic region. With the introduction of additional Thor and Sirius satellites later in the 1990s, Astra and other satellites were abandoned by the Nordic services with almost all Nordic satellite television migration on Thor and Sirius satellites.
Initially the basic channels free-to-air. This led to some problems, since the rights were spectators all over Europe to see in a position very much acquired English language skills Programming, and sports for free on the Nordic channels, although only the sender instead of broadcasting rights for specific countries. One way of avoiding that PAL was from the D2-MAC standard switch, hardly used anywhere outside the Nordic region. An unencrypted channel could still seen in all the Nordic satellite homes be, so that eventually all channels went encrypted (several of them are only in one country). There are two competing satellite services: Canal Digital are (Norwegian Telenor) and Viasat (Kinnevik). Canal Digital launched in 1997 and was from the beginning, digital, broadcasting from Thor. Kinnevik had the operation of an analogue subscription service since the late 1980s, but waited until 2000 before the introduction of a digital service. All analogue services from Thor and Sirius will have ceased in 2006 when the three remaining Danish channels go digital-only. The competition between Viasat and Canal Digital has some homes in Scandinavia have led to buy two set-top boxes and have two Subscription to the full range of channels. Viasat does not own channels (TV3, TV3 +, ZTV, TV1000 and Viasat-branded channels) on the Canal Digital platform. Canal Digital, however, has exclusive distribution of channels from SBS Broadcasting, Discovery, TV2 Denmark and Euro sport, for many years the Swedish SVT and TV4 channels were also exclusive to Canal Digital.
Middle East & North Africa
The Middle East has received a high penetration of television households via DTH satellite. One of the pioneers of free-to-air digital satellite television is considered to be MBC, which broadcast on C-Band began with Arabsat and is the first network in the world to a free-to-air Western based offer English language movie channel to the Middle East audience via its spinoff channel MBC 2nd Its direct competitor is as Dubai, UAE based One TV will be, earlier than Channel 33, which was the first channel in the Middle East to provide English language general entertainment programs for the emigrant community.
Nourmina Channel is the first satellite channel owned by a Jordanian national of the private sector, which broadcasts on Nile Sat 12303H reluctantly, all the Arab countries, Africa and much of Europe – The first digital DTH pay-TV covers network has to offer to Indian Entertainment Orbit Satellite Television and Radio Network broadcasting via Eurobird 2 (Ku band), later on Showtime Arabia, a joint venture between Viacom (21% stake) and KIPCO (79% stake) started broadcasting via PanAmSat (C-Band), but later on to Nilesat (KU band) turned on. Arab Radio and Television Network (ART) now known as Arab Digital Distribution although a late comer gained ground by broadcasting exclusive sports events. Most of the most popular channels on these satellites and orbital transfer positions: Arabsat 26E to 100.5E and 105.5E AsiaSat, Eutelsat Hot Bird at 13E, Nilesat at 7W and PanAmSat at 68.5E. + There are currently two primary providers of satellite TV subscription service available to Canadian consumers: Bell Direct TV and Shaw.
In Israel, Satellite TV services have been introduced by YES! Companies, with Israeli based Amos (satellite).
See also
Satellite dish
Microwave antenna
Commercialization of space
FTA Receivers
Molniya orbit
References
^ Robertson, Lloyd (9/11/1972). "Anik A1 Start: Bridging the Gap". CBC English TV. http://archives.cbc.ca/500f.asp?id=1-75-92-594. From 25/01/2007.
^ BBC News: Country profile: Sudan. Last updated at 13:38 GMT, Wednesday, 18 June 2008 14:38 UK. Retrieved 13th July 2008.
^ LyngSat Tracking
^ Eggerton, John (10/06/2009). "NAB does not oppose, is grandfathering some distant signals." Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/356999-NAB_Won_t_Oppose_Some_Grandfathering_Of_Distant_Signals.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. From 10/09/2009.
^ Eggerton, John (5/11/2009). "Leahy reauthorization Looks for 'Short Time' Agreement on Satellite." Broadcasting & Cable. Http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/382942-Leahy_Looks_for_Short_Time_Agreement_on_Satellite_Reauthorization.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. From 10/11/2009.
^ Eggerton, John (19/11/2009). "Senate passes Satellite reauthorization bill. Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/389824-Senate_Passes_Satellite_Reauthorization_Bill.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. From 11/20/2009.
^ Eggerton, John (03/12/2009). "Convincing SHVRA Passes in House". Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/417629-SHVRA_Passes_Convincingly_in_House.php?rssid=20065&q=digital+tv. From 03/12/2009.
^ Eggerton, John (12/15/2009). "Satellite Extension Bill is on the table in the house." Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/440498-Satellite_Bill_Extension_Said_To_Be_On_Table_In_House.php?rssid=20103&q=digital+tv. From 17/12/2009.
^ Eggerton, John (2/11/2010). "Senate version of the hit Satellite Bill Hill. Broadcasting & Cable. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/448896-Senate_Version_of_Satellite_Bill_Hits_Hill.php?rssid=20068&q=digital+tv. From 25/02/2010.
^ "CTV.ca | action targets gray market satellite dealers. Ctv.ca. Updated Mon 21st October 2002 08.46 clock ET. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1035231116797_30640316//. From 09/06/2008.
^ "Broadband TV News | Central and Eastern Europe | Home". Broadbandtvnews.com. http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/archive_cen/240306.html. From 09/06/2008.
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Satellite Communications
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See also: Category: Communication satellite
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Smart Phone Definitions

smart phone definitions
smart phone definitions
what is the definition of a smart phone? how s it different and can you give me an example of a smart phone?

you have 3 main phone types,
1. normal phones, which can do limited web browsing, be used as an mp3 player, basic digital cam and some have limited multi tasking(like playing music while sending a text or using web)
2. smartphones, all the features a normal phone has, but usually run something like windows mobile. this lets you do much more like use microsoft word, internet explorer(much better than the limited browser on a normal phone) and much better at multi-tasking(playing music, surfing the web, replying to a text message, all at the same time)
3. pocket pc or ppc, the top of the line. everthing a smartphone has and more. the bigest differences between a smartphone and a ppc is that a ppc has a touch screen/smartphone doesnt, smartphones usually run a watered down version of windows mobile or whatever its running vs the full version on a ppc, and ppc’s usually have a more powerful processor to handle the extra stuff it can do.

New CECT i9 Quadband Unlocked Dual Sim PDA Smart phone

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